柏賢婦產科及泌尿婦科中心

Urethritis and Cystitis

Urethritis and Cystitis are both lower urinary tract infections which usually occur concurrently.

Causes

  • Holding urine for too long
  • Inadequate fluid intake
  • Women who have frequent sexual activity (As female urethra is short and close to vagina and anus, there is a higher risk for bacteria to enter the urinary tract system during sex).
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Congenital abnormality of the urinary system (Uncommon).

Symptoms

  • Soreness or pain over lower abdomen
  • Haematuria
  • Frequent urination
  • Painful or burning urination
  • Feeling of incomplete emptying of bladder

Investigation

  • Mid-stream urine for culture and sensitivities
    To identify the pathogen in urine and suggest effective antibiotics
  • Cystoscopy
    Allow direct visualization of urethra and bladder which helps to differentiate between structural and functional problems.
  • CT Urogram
    An imaging exam used to evaluate the urinary tract, tumors or stones.

Management

  • Antibiotic therapy
    (Complete a course of Antibiotics as instructed by doctor)
  • If no fluid restriction, should have 1.5-2L fluid intake per day
  • Wipe perineum from front to back
  • Can take cranberry juice or food which is rich in vitamin C

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